Recent Publications

Higher order affordances

2 weeks ago
Affordances are opportunities for action for a given animal (or animals) in a given environment or situation. The concept of affordance has been widely adopted in the behavioral sciences, but important questions remain. We propose a new way of understanding the nature of affordances; in particular, how affordances are related to one another. We claim that many - perhaps most - affordances emerge from non-additive relations among other affordances, such that some affordances are of higher order...
Thomas A Stoffregen

The Complexity of Head Movement is Correlated with Learning about Affordances for Walking

6 months 3 weeks ago
We asked whether the quantitative kinematics of standing postural activity might be related to short-term learning of affordances. Standing participants viewed a narrow path for 15 s, and then gave perceptual reports about the distance that they could walk along the path while wearing a weighted vest (novel affordance) or while not wearing the vest (familiar affordance). In a control condition, participants gave perceptual reports about egocentric distance along the path. During the 15 s viewing...
Nicolette A Peterson

Perception of Affordances in Female Volleyball Players: Serving Short versus Serving to the Sideline

6 months 4 weeks ago
Purpose: We investigated youth volleyball players' perception of affordances for different types of serves. Methods: Participants were separated into Less Experienced (n = 13, maximum of 3 years of competitive volleyball experience) and More Experienced (n = 11, minimum of 4 years of competitive volleyball experience) groups. In the Sideline Condition, participants were asked to report the narrowest gap, relative to either the left or right sideline, into which they could serve the ball. In the...
Danilo Gomes de Arruda

Perception of higher-order affordances for kicking in soccer

1 year 1 month ago
We investigated the perception of higher-order interpersonal affordances for kicking that emerged from lower-order personal and interpersonal affordances in the context of soccer. Youth soccer players reported the minimum gap width between two confederates through which they could kick a ball. In Experiment 1, we independently manipulated the egocentric distance of gaps from participants, and the nominal role of the confederates, either as teammates or opponents. In Experiment 2, we additionally...
Alper Tunga Peker

Against free energy, for direct perception

1 year 9 months ago
We question the free energy principle (FEP) as it is used in contemporary physics. If the FEP is incorrect in physics, then it cannot ground the authors' arguments. We also question the assumption that perception requires inference. We argue that perception (including perception of social affordances) can be direct, in which case inference is not required.
Thomas A Stoffregen

Control of a virtual vehicle influences postural activity and motion sickness in pre-adolescent children

3 years ago
Among adults, persons in control of a vehicle (i.e., drivers) are less likely to experience motion sickness compared to persons in the same vehicle who do not control it (i.e., passengers). This "driver-passenger effect" is well-known in adults, but has not been evaluated in children. Using a yoked-control design with seated pre-adolescent children, we exposed dyads to a driving video game. In each dyad, one child (the driver) drove the virtual vehicle. Their performance was recorded, and later...
Chih-Hui Chang

Structure of variability in scanning movement predicts braille reading performance in children

3 years 3 months ago
Among children learning to read braille, we asked whether the quantitative kinematics of scanning movements of the reading finger would be related to the proficiency of braille reading. Over a period of 12 months, we recorded the position and orientation of the reading fingers of eight congenitally or early blind children. We found that the strength of long-range power-law temporal correlations in the velocity fluctuations increased with performance in braille reading. In addition, we found that...
Tetsushi Nonaka

Effects of physical driving experience on body movement and motion sickness among passengers in a virtual vehicle

3 years 7 months ago
Virtual vehicles (e.g., driving video games) can give rise to visually induced motion sickness. Typically, people drive virtual vehicles. In the present study, we investigated motion sickness among participants who were exposed to virtual vehicles as passengers; that is, they observed vehicle motion, but did not control it. We also asked how motion sickness and the postural precursors of motion sickness might be influenced by participants' previous experience of driving physical vehicles....
Chih-Hui Chang

Perception of Affordances in Soccer: Kicking for Power Versus Kicking for Precision

3 years 9 months ago
Purpose: We investigated youth soccer players' perception of affordances for different types of kicks. Method: In the Power task, players judged the maximum distance they could kick the ball. In the Precision task, players judged how close to a designated target line they could kick the ball. Following judgments, players performed each task. Both judgments and performance were assessed immediately before and immediately after players competed in a regulation soccer match, thereby permitting us...
Alper Tunga Peker

Perception of Affordances for Vertical and Horizontal Jumping in Children: Gymnasts Versus Non-Athletes

3 years 10 months ago
Purpose: We investigated the perception of affordances for vertical jumping-and-reaching and horizontal jumping by children. Method: In the horizontal task, children were asked to judge their ability in the standing long jump. In the vertical task, children were asked to judge the height of a ball that they could run to, jump up, and reach with their fingertips. Following judgments, children performed both types of jumps. We compared gymnasts (children with at least 2 years of gymnastics...
Alper Tunga Peker

It doesn't add up: Nested affordances for reaching are perceived as a complex particular

3 years 10 months ago
In the Ecological Approach to Perception and Action, affordances are emergent, higher-order relationships in an animal-environment system. In addition, perceivers should perceive such relationships directly, rather than by combining lower-order constituents of the affordance, such as non-affordance properties of the animal or the environment. In the present study, we investigated whether this latter claim applied to perception of superordinate affordances - affordances that emerge from relations...
Jeffrey B Wagman

Postural precursors of motion sickness in head-mounted displays: drivers and passengers, women and men

3 years 11 months ago
Motion sickness is preceded by distinctive patterns of postural activity that differ between the sexes. We asked whether such postural precursors of motion sickness might exist before participants were exposed to a virtual driving game presented via a head-mounted display. Men and women either controlled a virtual vehicle (drivers), or viewed a recording of virtual vehicle motion (passengers). Before exposure to the game, we recorded standing body sway while participants performed simple visual...
Christopher Curry

Social interaction in the emergence of toddler's mealtime spoon use

4 years 2 months ago
The use of a spoon for eating is among the important daily skills in early development. The article provides an analysis of how caregiver-toddler interactions guides the attention of toddlers who were first learning how to use a spoon to spoon-related action opportunities that were relevant to the mealtime context. Our analysis revealed several related results. First, caregivers often manipulated objects on the table (i.e., food and dishes), and toddlers were more likely than chance to use their...
Tetsushi Nonaka

Sensitivity to changes in dynamic affordances for walking on land and at sea

4 years 8 months ago
We investigated the perception of affordances for walking along a narrow path. We asked whether participants could perceive changes in affordances brought about by manipulation of properties of the body, or of the environment, without direct practice of the to-be-perceived affordance, and without external feedback about the accuracy of perception. In Experiment 1, participants made a series of 8 judgments of how far they could walk along a narrow path either, 1) without added weight, 2) while...
Hannah J Walter

The Role of Visual Feedback about Motion of the Ground on Postural Sway

5 years ago
We asked whether body sway would be influenced by visual information about motion of the ground surface. On a ship at sea, standing participants performed a demanding visual search task or a simple visual inspection task. Display content was stationary relative to the ship or relative to the Earth. Participants faced the ship's bow or its port side. Performance on the visual search task was representative of terrestrial studies. Body sway was greater during viewing of the Earth Stationary...
Ruixuan Li

Unstable coupling of body sway with imposed motion precedes visually induced motion sickness

5 years 3 months ago
Motion sickness is preceded by differences in the quantitative kinematics of body sway between individuals who (later) become sick and those who do not. In existing research, this effect has been demonstrated only in measures of body sway, relative to the earth. However, body sway can become coupled with imposed oscillatory motion of the illuminated environment, and the nature of this coupling may differ between individuals who become sick and those who do not. We asked whether body sway would...
Hannah J Walter

Adaptive perception of changes in affordances for walking on a ship at sea

5 years 5 months ago
Ocean waves cause oscillatory motion of ships. Oscillatory ship motion typically is greater in roll (i.e., the ship rolling from side to side) than in pitch (i.e., tipping from front to back). Affordances for walking on a ship at sea should be differentially influenced by ship motion in roll and pitch. When roll exceeds pitch, the maximum walkable distance within a defined path should be greater when walking along the ship's short, or athwart axis than when walking along its long, or fore-aft...
Hannah J Walter

Higher order affordances for reaching: Perception and performance

6 years 1 month ago
Affordances are available behaviours emerging from relations between properties of animals and their environment. In any situation, multiple behaviours are available, that is, multiple affordances exist. We asked whether participants could detect means-ends relations among affordances (i.e., higher order affordances) in the context of reaching to a maximum height. We both assessed perceived affordances and evaluated actual reaching ability. In Experiment 1, we co-varied higher order goals...
Jeffrey B Wagman
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